Professional Practice in Bioveterinary Science – Task D

A reflection on the result of a research skills test


After reflecting on the process of my learning and skills development across the Sector Studies module, and especially looking at the feedback I have received from the exam, I am overall very happy with what I have achieved and feel confident that I have a good and strong understanding of the topics that have been covered.


In the research skills test, I achieved a mark of 78%, which was an improvement from the mock exam we did in class in which I achieved 70%. Upon looking at this score and even at the slight improvement across the small period between the mock and the real exam, I can confidently say that my knowledge on research methods, mathematical and statistical skills, as well as my ability to use a scientific calculator, have all hugely developed and are at the required level that they should be in order to be a successful bioveterinary scientist.


Going into the exam, although I had achieved a first class mark in my mock, I lacked confidence as I know from previous exams in other modules, and from sitting GCSE and A-level exams, that when under pressure and trying to work to a time limit, I often make silly mistakes, particularly when it comes to mathematical calculations. I also know that regardless of how many times I double check answers, I usually fail to identify anything that I have done wrong, and therefore when I go over them, I tend to make the same mistakes each time – this was one of the main problems that I faced in my statistics module of A-level mathematics. Making silly mistakes under pressure and not being able to identify and rectify them is common for anyone, and it is difficult to be able to prevent it (Eisold, 2011). However, feedback from the sector studies exam showed that I hardly lost any marks on the mathematics questions at all. On reflection, mathematics has been a consistently strong area of mine throughout this first year of my degree, as I also achieved well in the maths areas of both our Fundamentals in Bioveterinary Science module and in Essential Laboratory Techniques.


One of the other factors that unnerved me about the exam was the possibility of a Chi-squared test question featuring in the paper, as this was one of my weaknesses at A-Level biology. Having said this, in both the lecture covering this material and the exam question, I was comfortable with it and knew how to do it with no problem. Despite my doubts, my ability to complete this question correctly could have been from my prior knowledge on the topic, whether I had been successful with it at A-Level or not. Studies have proved that students tend to achieve higher marks in areas which they already have prior-knowledge in (Cogliano et al, 2019). All I needed was a re-cap on the subject to enhance my understanding of it. My prior knowledge from A-Level biology and chemistry has also been a great help for me over the last year, particularly in the fundamentals, molecular biology and biochemistry modules. Due to knowing the basics of these I have been able to build on that knowledge and expand and develop it into much deeper and wider details, which has helped me to improve quickly over this last year and will be very beneficial for the duration of this course, as well as any further degrees or jobs that I may have in the animal health industry in the future.


Furthermore, a method of teaching that helped me a lot with the sector studies exam were the starter activities given in each lecture. These were really useful, as the constant repetition of practicing the basic calculator questions made me able to answer them increasingly quickly and with ease. The method of repetition was clearly of a huge benefit to my learning, and this can be explained by the fact that repetition induces neural enhancement (Hashimoto et al, 2011). As well as this, although we were given a step by step calculator sheet explaining how to perform each of these calculations, the constant repetition of doing this in the starter activities meant that it came very naturally and I had no need to use the sheet at all. This was beneficial because it saved me a lot of time in the exam.


My main downfall in the exam was the general research practice questions. These included questions on journals and databases, along with limitations to research. I think my main reason for losing marks in this area was because the rest of my co-hort and I joined in on the sector studies classes slightly later than the animal science students, and as a result we missed any content identifying that journals and databases were topics we needed to know for the exam. When I saw these questions in the exam, I completely panicked and I left most of them blank. However, on reflection, I should have stayed calm and tried to recall any journals and databases that I have used for previous assignments across other modules covered this year and written those down as examples.


Overall, I am extremely happy with how Sector Studies has helped me to develop my statistical skills and improve my knowledge on research methods. I am confident when I say that this, along with my progress in all other modules across this year, has prepared me well for future tasks requiring these skills both on this degree, and in the animal health industry when working as a professional bioveterinary scientist.











Cogliano, M., Kardash, C.M. and Bernacki, M.L. (2019) The effects of retrieval practice and prior topic knowledge on test performance and confidence judgements. Contemporary Educational Psychology. Vol. 56. Pp. 117-129.


Eisold, K. (2011) Making stupid Mistakes. Psychology Today.


Hashimoto, T., Usui, N., Taira, M. and Kojima, S. (2011) Neural enhancement and attenuation induced by repetitive recall. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 96(2). Pp. 143-149.




Failures in meiosis, which could result in chromosomal disease

Although the ability of an individual organism to reproduce is not essential to its survival, reproduction between different organisms is vital for the continuation of life on earth. In order for animals to be able to reproduce, they need working sexual reproductive organs which can produce gametes (ovum in females and spermatids in males) – these gametes are produced by a process called meiosis (Stauffer et al, 2018).


Meiosis is one of two types of cell division. The other type of cell division found in organisms is called mitosis, and it is the process by which a single cell divides, producing two genetically identical daughter cells. The main purpose of mitosis is for tissue growth and also to replace dead or worn out cells (Live Science, 2018). Mitosis is one of the phases of the cell cycle and it consists of five different stages. The first stage is prophase, followed by prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and then telophase (, 2019). There is also a further stage called cytokinesis, which begins towards the end of telophase .


Unlike mitosis, which consists of one division, meiosis involves two complex cellular divisions (Alberts et al, 2002). The first stage, (Meiosis 1), is made up of 4 stages: prophase 1 (which itself consist of five sub-phases), metaphase 1, anaphase 1 and telophase 1. Meiosis 1 is all to do with the separation of homologous chromosomes and the duplication of DNA. As well as this, the process of DNA shuffling allows genetic variation in species.

The five sub-phases of prophase 1 include leptotene, zygotene (where crossing over is initiated), pachytene, diplotene (where crossing over is completed) and finally diakinesis. Throughout these stages, the chromosomes condense and the nuclear membrane of the cell dissolves, which makes the chromosomes become gradually visible. The homologous chromosomes pair up and become bivalent, aligning with each other gene by gene. Recombination occurs and the non-sister chromatids exchange genes at corresponding segments of DNA – this produces recombinant DNA.
In metaphase 1, bivalent chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate, facing the opposite poles of the cell. Microtubules from opposing poles of the spindle fibres attach to each individual pair of homologous chromosomes. This is also the stage where independent assortment occurs (Chinnici et al, 2004). Independent assortment is where the chromosomes move around randomly to separate / opposing poles, which will eventually  result in a variety of combinations of chromosomes in each gamete. This, combined with crossing over, is what causes genetic variation.
Anaphase 1 consists of the separation of the homologous chromosomes. The kinetochores retract, which pulls the chromosomes apart to the opposite poles. During this process, the sister chromatids remain associated at the centromere, which in turn results in their movement as one single unit towards the same pole that the spindle fibre is attached to.

In the final stage of meiosis 1 (telophase 1), each half of the cell now has a complete haploid set of chromosomes which have been duplicated. The nuclear membrane reforms and surrounds the two daughter nuclei that now exist. Finally, the chromosomes become less condensed.

At the same time as telophase 1 occurs, the cell is also undergoing cytokinesis. This is the process which produces the end products of meiosis 1 – two unidentical daughter cells with a complete set of chromosomes (46 chromosomes each).


The second stage of meiosis is called meiosis 2, and this is almost made up of the same stages as the first meiotic division. The stages are: prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2 and cytokinesis. Meiosis 2 resembles almost the exact same process as a normal mitotic division, apart from the fact that there is no chromosome division – instead of the separation of homologous chromosomes it is about the separation of the sister chromatids. Meiosis 2 begins with prophase 2 which starts immediately after interkinesis (the phase between meiosis 1 and meiosis 2). In prophase 2, the nuclear membrane dissolves again and the chromosomes become compact like in prophase 1. The main difference is that a spindle apparatus forms and each chromosome remains as a composition of two sister chromatids attached at the centromere.

The next stage of meiosis 2 is metaphase 2, which is where the chromosomes line up at the equator and microtubules from opposing poles of the spindle attach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids. This stage is followed by anaphase 2, which is where the centromeres split, resulting in the separation of the sister chromatids. These then move to opposite poles of the cell.

Telophase 2 is where the nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear, forming 4 haploid nuclei. These are then cleaved apart to form a tetrad of cells in cytokinesis, which produces the end result of meiosis: 4 non-identical haploid daughter cells (gametes), each cell containing 23 chromosomes. In a male, one meiotic division produces four spermatozoa cells, whereas in a female, meiosis produces one ovum and three polar bodies.


The gametes produced by meiosis (ovum and sperm cells), combine to make a zygote during sexual reproduction. The halving of the number of chromosomes in the gametes during meiosis ensures that the zygotes have the same number of chromosomes from each generation to the next. However, meiosis does not always produce the right results. In some cases, there can be failures at any stage in the meiotic divisions which can in turn lead to the offspring having a chromosomal disease. Chromosomal disorders or abnormalities can be caused by the deletion, duplication or alteration of either an entire chromosome or a large part of one. Any changes to the volume of chromosomal material, whether it be an increase or a decrease, can interfere with the normal development and function of an organism. Although each different type of failure in meiosis on individual chromosomes causes a specific set of physical symptoms, the severity of the condition can vary.


A well known example of a chromosomal disease caused by failures in meiosis is Edward’s Syndrome (Trisomy 18). This disorder is caused by the presence of all, or part of, a third copy of the 18thchromosome. Trisomy 18 is the second most common autosomal trisomy in newborn children. The vast majority of those who suffer from Edward’s Syndrome have it as a result of maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 18 (Gaw & Platt, 2018). This means that either the homologous chromosomes fail to separate during the anaphase 1 stage of meiosis, or the sister chromatids fail to separate during the anaphase 2 stage of meiosis. Half of all babies born with Edward’ Syndrome die within less than one week of birth, and between 5% and 10% of these babies live for no longer than one year (Perlstein, n.d.).


Another example of a chromosomal disease caused by failures in meiosis is Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS), or 4p deletion syndrome. This disorder is caused by partial deletion of genetic material near to the end of the short arm of chromosome 4. Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome was the very first example of a human chromosomal deletion syndrome, however it is extremely rare in comparison with other chromosomal diseases (Lee & Van Den Veyver, 2018). Some symptoms of WHS include serious prenatal growth restriction, severe seizures and predominant or deformed facial features. Like Trisomy 18, 4p deletion syndrome can be diagnosed through a series of ultrasound findings, and its diagnosis is confirmed by certain genetic testing.


Overall, meiosis is the fundamental process in providing genetic variation, as well as ensuring that generations carry the same number of chromosomes between generations. This is critical for stable sexual reproduction through successive generations. Without meiosis occurring, no organism would be fertile and therefore there would be no continuation of life on earth. Not only is the process of meiosis vital in ensuring that there is a continuation of life, but also if there is even one tiny failure at any given point during the meiotic divisions, it can have a significant impact on the life of the offspring inheriting that gene.








Alberts, B.,  Johnson, A., Lewis, J. et al. (2002) Meiosis. Molecular biology of the cell. 4thedition.


Chinnici, J.P., Yue, J.W., Torres, K.M. (2004) Students as “Human Chromosomes” in Role-Playing Mitosis & Meiosis. The American Biology Teacher. 66(1), pp. 35-39.


Gaw, S.L. & Platt, L.D. (2018) 150 – Trisomy 18.  Obstetric Imaging: Fetal Diagnosis and Care. 2ndedition. Pp. 605-608.


Lee, W., Van Den Veyver, I.B. (2018) 155 – Chromosome 4p Deletion Syndrome (Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome). Obstetric Imaging: Fetal Diagnosis and Care. 2ndedition. Pp. 626-630.


Live Science. (2018) What is mitosis?[Accessed 22ndMarch, 2019]. (2019) Mitosis.[Accessed 22ndMarch, 2019]


Perlstein, D., Davis, C.P. (n.d.) Trisomy 18 (Edward’s Syndrome). MedicineNet.


Stauffer, S., Gardner, A., Ungu, D.A.K., Lopez-Cordoba, A., Heim, M. (2018) Meiosis. Labster Virtual Lab Experiments: Basic Biology. Springer Spektrum, pp. 27-41.

Personal and Professional Development Plan

Becoming a working professional, in any area of expertise, is an extremely difficult and task and involves high levels of competition from others trying to secure their place in the same industry. Once becoming a professional, it is then vital to be able to maintain a high level of professionalism and to continue to develop important skills. At the end of my degree I will become a professional veterinary bioscientist. In order to continue as a professional and fulfil my ambition to go onto a postgraduate veterinary medicine degree after this course, it is extremely important that I am able to and can continue to assess the skills that I need to develop to achieve this goal.


Identifying personal strengths is a very important part of being able to assess progress and development. Personally, something that I identify as one of my own strengths is being able to manage my time between my work life, university life, and then also my own personal and social life including my hobbies. Time management is a key aspect of success, as without managing time well, assignments and revision can be left too late and therefore any work produced at the last minute will not be done to the highest standard possible. On the contrary, spending too much time studying can also have a negative impact on the work produced, because it can become overwhelming and the brain needs time to relax and wind down in order to function properly and learn. Due to the fact that I have a part time job and play or umpire netball matches three to four times a week, I have to ensure that I work efficiently over regular short periods of time, whilst still allowing myself time to be able to relax and go out with friends. Currently I can do this very well, and so long as I am able to maintain this I should hopefully continue to succeed and achieve well in assignments and exams, as well as keeping fit and healthy and keeping stress levels to a minimum at the same time.


Although my general and background knowledge of the content of the course that I am studying is good, to develop further I need to ensure that I conduct my own further independent study adding to the content that we are delivered in lectures. I need to read around the subjects more in order to widen my knowledge, as it is very important to be able to fully understand what it is that I am learning, rather than just being able to memorise a set of facts. This is vital so that I am able to progress and use this knowledge in practice in the future, whether it be during my postgraduate study or after that when I begin working in the professional field.


Setting myself targets is crucial to my professional and personal development throughout my studies and also for my future career. Without specific targets and goals, it is difficult to be able to know what areas to improve on and what new skills to develop in order to better myself and progress professionally.

I think that one of the main targets I have set myself is to complete more CPD (continued personal development) courses online, and to ensure that I keep a log of them on the facilities available via my Royal Society of Biology membership. This not only will broaden my own skills and knowledge, but it will be beneficial to have as evidence to show that I am committed to constant new learning when applying for postgraduate courses, and further down the line when applying for a new job. A record of continuous personal development will hopefully make me stand out compared to others who are competing for the same educational and vocational places as myself.


Furthermore, eventhough through work experience, my current job, completion of the bronze duke of Edinburgh award and my place in one or more netball teams at a time, all display evidence that I am capable at working  well in a team, I would like to further develop my leadership skills, which are equally as important. Leadership skills and teamwork are both extremely essential skills to have for a postgraduate course, as well as for a future career in the veterinary industry. In order for me to practice and enhance my leadership skills, I will be applying for the role as captain of the university netball team from September this year, and I have also taken on the role as Vice Chairperson of the netball club that I play for in the Chelmsford District Netball League.


Overall, by using the targets that I have set for myself I will hopefully be able to develop both my personal and professional skills to help me reach and achieve my desired goal.

Fundamentals Task D: Critical reflection on current understanding of maths and chemistry

As mentioned in Task A, maths and chemistry are extremely important subjects to me with regards to the level of understanding that I need in them for the career path that I am choosing to follow: veterinary medicine. Over the course of the last few months studying for my Bioveterinary Science degree, maths and chemistry skills have been a constant requirement – not just in the Fundamentals of Bioveterinary Science module, but also in the Essential Laboratory Techniques module as well. Maths skills have been required for converting units, calculating amounts of substances and making solutions, while chemistry skills were needed during Fundamentals lessons when looking into aspects of biochemical energetics and organic chemistry, as well as needing an understanding of basic chemistry when carrying out laboratory practicals. As a result of using and practicing these skills, my understanding of maths and chemistry has definitely improved and is continuing to do so each day.

Although my understanding of mathematics has always been very strong, (supported by my A* mathematics GCSE, A grade further mathematics qualification, and C grade mathematics A level qualification), at the beginning of the bioveterinary science course I was struggling to apply my maths knowledge to the word problems, and my intention was to keep practicing this question style in order to enhance my ability to be able to answer them correctly and confidently. Repeating questions over and over again is a really good way of learning and retaining information (L. Zhan et al, 2018), and by using this technique myself and practicing the maths word questions repetitively, I can now confidently answer most questions regarding making solutions that are put in front of me, or I at least know what information I am looking for and where to start. Considering the fact that when I look at my Task A reflection, answering word problems and interpreting the right information to understand where to start was a significant problem for me, my ability to now do that is a huge improvement from a month or two ago.

Furthermore, unlike mathematics, I have always found understanding chemistry a huge challenge – it is not something that comes naturally to me. In task A, I explained that I believe my lower level of understanding in chemistry could have been due to my lack of interest in the subject at school, in contrast to mathematics which is something I have always enjoyed. Students being able to engage and find interest in their subjects is a major key to them achieving well in that subject and being successful (A. Rissanen, 2018). Although being interested in a subject is not something that you can necessarily learn, I have found other ways to enhance my understanding of chemistry:
Firstly, in the Task A reflective writing piece I showed an interest in a textbook called “Chemistry for the Biosciences: The essential concepts”, written by J. Crowe and T. Bradshaw (2014 edition). I took it upon myself to purchase this book and I have been reading through it and using it at home for my own personal study. This textbook was a great purchase because it contains all of the chemistry in it that I will need to know for this course, and its explanations are all very detailed yet easy for me to be able to understand.. It also has lots of clear diagrams and pictures – which for me, as a very visual learner, is really useful and has helped me get a much better understanding of the subject (A. Bourgoyne and M. Alt, 2017). I am also able to use the book to asses my understanding of the subject because it provides online services and questions for you to answer. The most helpful part of the questions is not necessarily actually answering them, but it is marking them by using the answers given at the back of the book and being able to self-assess. Being able to self-assess and review answers and see where you have gone wrong is a big part of advancing your learning  and helping you to progress forwards (P. Orsmond and S. Merry, 2013).

Also, throughout all of the biochemistry / organic chemistry lessons that we have had run by John Morgan for our Fundamentals in Bioveterinary Science module, I have been engaging and answering his questions to the class. In doing so I have actually found myself very surprised with my level of understanding of chemistry and have come to the realisation that I may have been underestimating my ability in chemistry just because I did not achieve highly in it at A level. It is possible that my good level of understanding John Morgan’s lessons have been aided by the extra reading and self-learning that I have been doing, combined with the previous knowledge I have from GCSE and A Level chemistry.

On reflection, I am extremely pleased with the improvement I have seen in my understanding of maths and chemistry to get it to the level that it is currently at now. With the help of my peers, lecturers and own resources, I am constantly building my knowledge and understanding of the subjects. Moving forward, I will continue to uphold my own private study on both mathematics and chemistry, and I will seek any advice from peers and staff around me if it is needed in order to ensure that I can continue to maintain and build on my level of understanding.




Bourgoyne, A. and Alt, M. (2017) The Effect of Visual Variability on the Learning of Academic Concepts. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing research.

Orsmond, P and Merry, S. (2013) The importance of self-assessment in students’ use of tutors’ feedback: a qualitative study of high and non-high achieving biology undergraduates. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education.

Rissanen, A. (2018) Student Engagement in Large Classroom: The Effect on Grades, Attendance and Student Experiences in an Undergraduate Biology Course. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education.

Zhan, L. et al. (2018) Effects of Repetition Learning on Associative Recognition Over Time: Role of the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Fundamentals Task C – Osmosis and its importance to living organisms

Osmosis is a very important process which is vital to the health and well-being of living organisms. It occurs both on a cellular and molecular/chemical level and it has significant effects on an organism as a whole. Osmoregulation maintains a fixed concentration of water and solutes in the cell-surrounding fluids in the body, as well as inside cells themselves – without osmosis, animals simply would not be able to survive (A.K. Johnson, 2009).


The osmotic process is a specific form of diffusion, whereby water molecules move across a semipermeable membrane into a region of a higher concentration of solute, from a region of a lower concentration of solute, in order to maintain an equilibrium (Biology Dictionary, N.d.). This process is driven by a force called osmotic pressure. Living organisms rely on the process of osmoregulation to maintain homeostasis so that their internal environment remains constant (S. Hohmann et al, 2007). A lack of enough water in the body through losing more fluid than you can take in can result in dehydration, because the body does not have enough water to be able to carry out its normal functions (NHS, 2017). On the other hand, if the body is taking in more fluids than it can lose, the level of salt or sodium in the blood can drop too low, and this can also have significant effects on the organism’s health – in extreme circumstances it can cause what is known as water intoxification (Healthline, 2017). These two examples show why the maintenance of water levels in the bodies of organisms is extremely important.


Osmosis is a particularly important concept when it comes to the survival of fish. They are known as osmoconformers – their bodies regulate the amount of water loss or gain through the maintenance of body solute concentration using osmosis (T.J. Bradley, 2010). Different types of fish live in different environments with regards to the salt concentration in the water, which depends on what parts of the world and what kinds of water they live in. For example, salt water fish and fresh water fish live in very different water concentrations, so the way their body regulates their internal environments with the aid of osmosis are very different.


Salt water fish (also known as marine fish) live in what is called a hypertonic environment, meaning that the water in the ocean contains a much higher concentration of NaCl than the fluids in the living organisms – salt water contains approximately 35g of salt per 1 litre of water (S.E.A aquarium, 2017). However, in fresh water, there is only 1g of salt per litre of water, and therefore the salt concentration in the body of the fish is higher than that of the water, making the environment hypotonic. Depending on whether the fish are in a hypertonic or hypotonic environment has an effect on the amount of water that the fish drink and absorb, because the way their bodies osmoregulate are different.


The Atlantic Salmon are one of the very few fish that are able to live in both salt water and fresh water conditions (K. Lumingkit, 2014). In salt water, the Atlantic salmon is hypoosmotic compared to the water, which means that due to the osmotic forces around the epithelia of the fish, they are continuously losing water, as the forces drive the water out of their bodies into the water where there is a higher concentration of salt. Whilst constantly losing water, they are taking in large amounts of ions. To overcome this, the Antlantic salmon drink a large volume of water, and also absorb water through the active transport of NaCl in the intestine (M. Grossel, 2011).
In contrast to when they are in salt water, the Atlantic Salmon are hyperosmotic compared to the environment in fresh water. This means that because of the osmotic forces, water diffuses into the fish over the epithelia, resulting in the outward movement of ions. As a result of this, the fresh water Atlantic salmon drink and absorb very low amounts of water. To retain the right amount of ions in their body, it is vital that fresh water Atlantic salmon actively take up sufficient sodium and chloride across their gills, (K.S. Sundell & H. Sundh, 2012), and obtain and absorb enough ions from their food so that it can be reserved in the kidney.


Not only is osmosis a very important process to overall living organisms, but it is extremely important to them on a molecular level. Red blood cells (also known as erythrocytes), rely on the process of osmosis to live and function in the body. When an erythrocyte is in a healthy state – the concentration of water inside and outside of the cell is at equilibrium – it is said to be in an isotonic solution (A. Soult, 2018). However, if there is more free water internally to the cell (hypertonic), the water will diffuse outwards via osmosis – when there is not enough water in the erythrocyte, the osmotic pressure of the cell membrane reduces and the cell shrinks and shrivels and becomes what is called flaccid.

In contrast, if there is more free water externally to the cell (hypotonic), the water will diffuse inwards via osmosis. When there is too much water in the erythrocyte, it will begin to swell and in extreme circumstances, the cell will burst – in any cell this is known as lysis (L.K. Goodhead and F.M. MacMillan, 2017), but in specific reference to erythrocytes, a cell bursting is called haemolysis.


As displayed throughout this report, osmosis has a huge importance in the functioning of living organisms, both on a molecular level and effecting the whole organisms. Without highly sensitive osmoreguation, organisms would not be able to maintain homeostasis and therefore their enzymes and body systems, and even down to each individual cell in their bodies, would simply not be able to function. Without the full functioning of all of these systems in a homeostatic state, living organisms cannot be compatible with life.






Biology Dictionary. (n.d.). Osmosis Definition. [online].  (Accessed 21stNovember, 2018)


Bradley, T.J. (2010). Osmoconformers. Oxford Animal Biology Series.


Goodhead, L.K. and MacMillan, F.M. (2017). Measuring osmosis and hemolysis of red blood cells. US Natioal Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health.


Grossel. M. (2011). Intestinal anion exchange in marine teleosts is involved in osmoregulation and contributes to the oceanic inorganic carbon cycle. Acta Physiol.


Healthline. (2017). Overhydration. [online]. 21st November, 2018).


Hohmann, S. et al. (2007). Osmosensing and Osmosignalling. Methods of Enzymology.


Johnson, A.K. (2009). Osmoregulation. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience.


Lumingkit. K. (2014). Atlantic Salmon (Salmon Salar) osmoregulation in sea water. Faculty of Science.


NHS. (2017). Dehydration. [online]. 21stNovember, 2018).


S.E.A. Aquarium. (2017). Saltwater Fish Vs Freshwater Fish. [online]. 25thNovember, 2018).


Soult, A. (2018). Osmosis and Diffusion. Chemistry LibreTexts.


Sundell, K.S. and Sundh, H. (2012). Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous salmonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins. Aquatic Physiology.